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The establishment of systems for the recognition and validation of all forms of learning has become one of the central themes in all sectors of education and training. This evolution reflects various societal changes, in particular the shift from the 'job for life' culture to the expectation of a succession of jobs throughout a career, often in different occupational areas. It is also closely related to the need for all active citizens who wish to secure their employment and employability in a fast-evolving technology-rich environment to constantly develop their knowledge and skills through learning activities which may, or may not, be explicitly designed as formal learning. In this context, it has become necessary to enable all those involved in lifelong learning – regardless of where it takes place – to have their learning achievements recognised and validated.